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Pupils should be taught:

1. Life processes and cell    activity




a that many animals and plants have organs that enable life processes, eg reproduction, to take place;

b that animals and plants are made up of cells;

c the functions of the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus in plant and animal cells;

d the functions of chloroplasts and cell walls in plant cells;

e ways in which some cells, including ciliated epithelial cells, sperm, ova, palisade cells and root hair cells, are adapted to their functions.

2. Humans as organisms



a that balanced diets contain carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, fibre and water;

b some sources of the main food components in the diet;

c that food is used as a fuel during respiration to maintain the body`s activity and as a raw material for growth and repair;

d the principles of digestion, including the role of enzymes;

e that the products of digestion are absorbed and waste material is egested;



f how blood acts as a transport medium and about the exchange of substances at the capillaries;



g the role of the skeleton, joints and muscles in movement;

h the principle of antagonistic muscle pairs, eg biceps and triceps;


i about the physical and emotional changes that take place during adolescence;

j the human reproductive system, including the menstrual cycle and fertilisation;

k how the foetus develops in the uterus, including the role of the placenta;



l how lung structure enables gas exchange to take place;

m how smoking affects lung structure and gas exchange;


n that aerobic respiration involves the reaction in cells between oxygen and food used as a fuel;

o that during aerobic respiration glucose is broken down to carbon dioxide and water;

p to summarise aerobic respiration in a word equation;


Pupils should be taught:


q that the abuse of alcohol, solvents and other drugs affects health;

r that bacteria and viruses can affect health;

s that the body`s natural defences may be enhanced by immunisation and medicines.

3. Green plants as organisms


nutrition and growth                                                                                                                         


a that photosynthesis produces biomass and oxygen;

b that plants need carbon dioxide, water and light for photosynthesis;

c to summarise photosynthesis in a word equation;

d that nitrogen and other elements in addition to carbon, oxygen and hydrogen are required for plant growth;

e that root hairs absorb water and minerals from the soil;



f how sexual reproduction occurs in flowering plants, including fertilisation and seed formation;



g that plants carry out aerobic respiration.

4. Variation, classification and inheritance



a that there is variation within species and between species;

b that variation within a species can have both environmental and inherited causes;


c how keys can be used to identify animals and plants;

d to classify living things into the major taxonomic groups;



e that selective breeding can lead to new varieties.

5. Living things in their environment




a that different habitats support different plants and animals;

b how some organisms are adapted to survive daily and seasonal changes in their habitats, eg light intensity, temperature;

feeding relationships


c how food chains may be quantified using pyramids of numbers;

d that in food webs there are several food chains with species in common;

e how toxic materials may accumulate in food chains;



f factors affecting the size of populations, including predation and competition for resources;

g that organisms successfully competing in their environment contribute relatively more offspring to the next generation.